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Diverticular colon disease

Sep 17, 2019

Diverticular disease of the colon (diverticulosis, diverticulitis of the colon) — it is one of the most common diseases among middle-aged people, and especially the elderly, which is a sac-like protrusion of the colon mucosa.

The prevalence of diverticular disease is constantly increasing. So, according to some scientists in the United States for the period from 1998 to 2005, the frequency of hospitalizations associated with this pathology increased from 61.8/100 000 to 75.5/100 000. Especially pronounced was the increase in the prevalence of diverticular disease among the population under 45 years of age.

The main role in the widespread spread of this disease is played by a decrease in the amount of plant food in the diet and the predominance of meat and flour dishes in the diet, which leads to constipation. In addition to constipation, the development of diverticula is promoted by: obesity, flatulence (heavy gas formation), intestinal infections, prolonged and erratic use of laxative medications.

With age, the elasticity of the intestinal wall decreases significantly. Increased pressure in the intestine (as a result of constipation, flatulence, etc.) leads to protrusion of some of its areas (weak points), a diverticulum is formed. 

The main role in the widespread spread of this disease is played by a decrease in the amount of plant food in the diet and the predominance of meat and flour dishes in the diet, which leads to constipation. In addition to constipation, the development of diverticula is promoted by: obesity, various changes in connective tissue, low levels of physical activity, as well as taking aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prolonged and erratic use of laxative drugs.

In addition, there is evidence that important etiological factors in the development of diverticular disease are thinning of the muscle layer and disruption of the intermuscular nervous plexus of the intestine.

With age, the elasticity of the intestinal wall decreases significantly. Increased pressure in the intestine (as a result of constipation, flatulence, etc.) leads to protrusion of some of its areas (weak points), a diverticulum is formed.

 

Most often, diverticulosis is asymptomatic.

However, sometimes patients are disturbed:

* abdominal pain, more often in the left half;

* stool disorders, most often constipation or alternation of constipation and diarrhea;

* bloating, rumbling in the stomach.

Over time, due to the accumulation of fecal masses in the diverticulum, inflammation may occur-diverticulitis. At the same time, the temperature rises, abdominal pain increases, mucus and blood are found in the stool, and pronounced flatulence worries. It is the inflammation of the diverticulum that most often causes patients to go to the doctor.

In turn, diverticulitis can lead to the development of serious complications:

 

  • intestinal bleeding-manifests itself by the release of scarlet blood or clots in the feces; it worries weakness, low blood pressure, there is a pallor of the skin, the release of blood is accompanied by abdominal pain, stool disorders;

  • intestinal obstruction-develops when the passage of intestinal masses is disrupted as a result of narrowing of the lumen of the intestine at the site of diverticulum departure;

  • purulent inflammation of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis) it develops when intestinal contents enter the abdominal cavity through a hole in the wall of the diverticulum (perforation of the diverticulum), which is formed when its wall is thinned.

 

 You can avoid the development of these dangerous complications by undergoing a comprehensive examination at the MCSC to clarify the diagnosis and select therapy.

The diagnosis of "diverticular disease" should be based not only on the subjective complaints of the patient, but also on objective data, including examination, the results of laboratory and visualization methods of research.

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