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Recommendations for the prevention of colorectal cancer

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Onco-alertness: the large intestine.Statistics

In the developed countries of the world, the incidence of colon cancer continues to grow steadily. In the world, 600 thousand new cases of colon cancer are registered annually. In Russia, 40 thousand new cases of malignant diseases of the colon are registered annually.

Risk factors

There are a number of risk factors for colorectal cancer that may contribute to the onset of the disease, be a trigger, but the exact causes are still unknown.

If the following factors are present, timely screening is necessary:

  • • age over 50 years;
  • * burdened family history (in this case, screening should be started 10 years earlier than the tumor was detected in a relative);
  • * presence of polyps in the intestine;
  • * inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease);
  • * unbalanced diet (lack of fruits and vegetables, excess of red meat, sweet, flour, etc.);
  • * physical passivity;
  • * high body mass index (overweight and obesity increase the risk of colorectal cancer);
  • * toxins (alcohol abuse, smoking).

Recommendations

Screening measures are quite effective in relation to the "prevention" of colorectal cancer and can prevent its development in 80% of cases. This means that even if there are no complaints, each patient should be assigned a fecal occult blood test and a colonoscopy when they reach the age of 45-50 years. Further tactics depend on the results of the studies: in the absence of organic pathological changes during colonoscopy, the patient is shown a dynamic observation, namely, a fecal analysis for hidden blood 1 time per year; if the result is negative, a repeated colonoscopy every 5 years. If a colonoscopy reveals 1-2 polyps less than 1 cm in size (adenomas), then a second colonoscopy-after 3 years, but every year-a test for hidden blood. These patients are a low-risk group.

Medium-risk group: colonoscopy revealed 3-10 polyps no more than 1 cm (with histological examination-adenomas), then colonoscopy is performed every 2 years, and fecal analysis for hidden blood-every year.

Patients from the high-risk group (colonoscopy revealed multiple or large polyps, with histological examination having a high degree of dysplasia) are assigned an individual examination program.

It is also necessary to remember: in patients with diagnosed ulcerative colitis, a colonoscopy should be performed every 2 years and must be accompanied by a ladder biopsy (at least 30 fragments of the colon mucosa).

What can be recommended to people for the prevention of cancer of the colon?

Timely screening (even in the absence of any complaints), proper nutrition (vegetables, fruits, seafood, less smoked meat), moderate physical activity, weight control, and seasonal multivitamin intake. It is not yet possible to completely prevent the development of cancer, but its timely detection can lead to the cure of patients in 98% of cases.

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