Relevance: Skin melanoma is a highly malignant mesenchymal tumor with an aggressive clinical course, developing from melanocytes (pigment cells that produce melanin). The incidence of skin melanoma in the developed countries of the world and the Russian Federation increases annually, by about 5% per year. According to WHO, the global incidence of skin melanoma will increase by 25% by 2025. According to the absolute increase in the incidence of malignant tumors in the world, melanoma ranks 2nd after lung cancer. According to studies conducted in the United States, 1 person dies from melanoma every hour.
Melanoma is the cause of 80% of deaths in the group of patients with skin malignancies. Unfortunately, in the Russian Federation, during the initial treatment to an oncologist, skin melanoma, in 25% of cases, is detected at the already advanced stages III-IV of the tumor process.
With the introduction of the dermatoscopy method into the routine practice of a dermatologist and oncologist, the diagnosis of early skin melanoma and its precursors has improved somewhat. In recent years, diagnostic methods have been improved and treatment methods for skin melanoma at all stages of the tumor process have been optimized.
- We will analyze the principles of diagnosis and treatment of dysplastic melanocytic nevi of the skin (risk groups for the incidence of skin melanoma, the clinical picture of skin melanoma and its metastases, the international visual system for the diagnosis of skin melanoma according to AVSDE, etc.).
- We will analyze the dermatoscopic criteria for melanocytic formations of the skin, as well as the criteria for pigmented and non-pigmented variants of skin melanoma with the help of modern dermatoscopes.
- Let's analyze the epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis of skin melanoma.
- Let's analyze the principles of diagnosis and treatment of local, locally advanced and disseminated forms of skin melanoma (indications for PET/CT in the "whole body" mode, brain MRI, etc., mechanisms of action, indications and contraindications of targeted drugs in the presence of a mutation in melanoma in the B-RAF and C-kit gene, as well as mechanisms of action, indications and contraindications of new immuno - oncological drugs – blockers of immune control points-inhibiting T-cell receptors CTLA-4 and PD1-inhibitors.
- We will study in detail the method and technique of surgical removal of primary skin melanoma (volume of operations, margins from the edges of the melanoma during its surgical removal, the method and indications for a sentinel lymph node biopsy).
Internship base: oncosurgical Department of Skin and Soft Tissue Tumors of the State Medical Institution MCSC named after A. S. Loginov DZM.
Internship Supervisor: Titov K. S., MD, Head of the Oncosurgical Department of Skin and Soft Tissue Tumors of the State Medical Institution of the MCSC named after A. S. Loginov DZM.