Cytological diagnosis of thyroid diseases based on the materials of fine needle aspiration puncture biopsy-TAPB (18 hours)

Relevance: Epidemiological studies of recent years indicate a steady increase in the frequency of thyroid diseases. It was found that during mass surveys of the population, nodular formations are detected in 15-22% of the surveyed. There was also a significant widespread increase in neoplastic lesions. Thus, according to the WHO (World Health Organization), the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased by 2 times over the past 10 years. 
Often, patients are observed for a long time for a benign lesion of the thyroid gland and only at the postoperative stage they are diagnosed with cancer. At the same time, the most common (86.7%) cancer is detected in nodes with a diameter of 1.0 to 2.5 cm, although the size of the nodular formation is not pathognomonic.
In the last 10-15 years, ultrasound has taken the leading place among the instrumental diagnostic methods, the undoubted advantage of which is its high information content, harmlessness and ease of burden. Meanwhile, the works of domestic and foreign authors have shown that, based on traditional ultrasound signs, it is impossible to make a differential diagnosis between the malignant and benign nature of the lesion. 
As a result of these diagnostic difficulties, the method of aspiration puncture biopsy with a thin needle, followed by cytological examination, is gaining more and more popularity.

As part of the course, we:

  1. We will study the epidemiology, morphology and modern classifications of thyroid gland formations
  2. We will analyze the general principles and diagnostic criteria for conducting a fine-needle aspiration puncture biopsy in thyroid diseases.  
  3. Consider the possible cytological patterns in various changes of the thyroid gland.
  4. We will discuss the morphological patterns that cause the greatest difficulty in assessing the cytological material. 
  5. We will analyze the method of rapid assessment of the cellular content of the obtained material in the operating room ROSE (Rapid On Site Evaluation) and the possibility of its application for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. 

The base for the internship: Clinical and diagnostic Laboratory of the State Medical Institution of the Moscow State Scientific Research Center named after A. S. Loginov DZM.
Internship Supervisor: head of the Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory, PhD, Noskova K. K.

GBUZ Moscow Clinical Scientific Center named after Loginov MHD