Breast cancer

About Breast Cancer 

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Every year in Russia, more than 65,000 new cases of the disease are registered, this oncological pathology occupies a leading position both in the incidence of malignant neoplasms of the female population (20.7%) and in mortality from them (17.1%).

Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease, the development of which is associated with damage to the cell genome. These injuries occur under the influence of external factors, and in the presence of pre-existing genetic damage-mutations, the risk of developing breast cancer increases many times. 

Risk factors 

To date, all the causes of breast cancer are unknown, but there are risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing this disease:

1. Alcohol abuse, smoking, lack of physical activity, stress;

2. Poor nutrition, overweight, type II diabetes, hypothyroidism, metabolic syndrome;

3. Excessive exposure to the sun, mechanical damage to the chest;

4. Early first menstruation (before 12 years), late menopause (after 55 years), hormone replacement therapy in the postmenopausal period (the risk may increase with prolonged use and the beginning of use a few years after the last menstruation);

5. Short-term breast-feeding;

6. The presence of benign changes in the mammary gland (mastopathy);

7. Having relatives with breast cancer and / or ovarian cancer;

8. Age.

Important! Risk factors have a complex effect. 

If a mutation is detected. 

Important! Finding a mutation doesn't mean you already have a tumor, but it doesn't rule it out either. Do not panic, you should understand that you have received very important information that can help save your life and preserve the health of you and your loved ones. 

If the result is positive, you need to:

1. Seek medical and genetic advice from specialized specialists (geneticist, oncologist).

2.      Evaluate the need for the relatives to pass a DNA test for inheritance of the mutation.

If the mutation is not detected. 

Important! A negative result does not guarantee the absence of other extremely rare mutations in these genes. If you have a history of other malignancy (ovarian cancer, etc.), or a family history (breast/breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc.). in close relatives), it is recommended to conduct a medical and genetic consultation to determine the feasibility of using expensive methods of searching for mutations by genomic sequencing. 

If you are seriously concerned about your health, you should visit a mammologist once a year before the age of 39. It is also recommended to undergo an ultrasound examination once every 2-3 years, which is carried out on the 5-14 day from the beginning of the menstrual cycle. With its help, you can detect a tumor even of a very small size, from three to five millimeters.


After 39 years, mammography and additional examinations are added to the ultrasound on the doctor's recommendation.

Remember that it is easier to prevent the disease than to fight it. Prevention of breast cancer will help you to maintain not only health, but also beauty.

Treat yourself carefully, do not forget about regular visits to the doctor.

Be healthy!

GBUZ Moscow Clinical Scientific Center named after Loginov MHD