Intra-ductal papilloma-a benign neoplasm that develops in the duct of the breast, consists of glandular epithelium, stromal, fibro-vascular elements. Intra-flow papillomas occur in 2-3% of cases, more often in women aged 30-55 years.
They can develop in both the central and peripheral ducts. There are both single and multiple intra-flow growths. Clinically manifest themselves as bloody, serous, greenish discharge from the breast nipple. They can rarely appear as a palpable mass.
During ultrasound examination, the following signs are typical for intra-ductal papilloma: formation in the lumen of the duct (Figure 1), dilation of the duct, complex cystic formation.
Ductography can detect intra-flow growths in 91% of patients. The images show the expansion of the duct, a defect in the filling of the duct (Figure 2), or an intra-flow neoplasm completely blocks the duct.
Central (formed behind the nipple-areolar complex) intra-flow papillomas are often not visualized on mammograms. Whereas papillomas formed in the lumen of the peripheral ducts can be diagnosed by mammography and visualized in the form of: architectural reconstruction, nodular formation with or without calcification.
The probability of malignancy (transition to cancer) intraductal papilloma is from 0 to 29%.
Surgical excision (sectorial resection of the breast) is indicated for intra-flow growths.