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Hydronephrosis is a pathological condition of the upper urinary tract, in which there is a persistent and progressive expansion of the renal pelvis and calyx in one or both kidneys. Hydronephrosis most often leads to atrophy of the renal tissue and, as a result, a pronounced decrease in renal function.

Causes of hydronephrosis:

  • Urolithiasis. Stones that can cause obstruction of the pelvic-ureteral segment in the kidney or blockage of the ureter. 
  • Malignant diseases. Tumors in the bladder, prostate, uterus, or other organs can cause a block that disrupts the flow of urine. 
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Enlargement of the prostate gland in men can cause a marked deterioration in urination, a violation of the emptying of the bladder, characterized by a significant amount of residual urine.

Hydronephrosis can also cause other diseases of the lower urinary tract, causing a violation of the outflow of urine:

  •  bleeding with the formation of blood clots can lead to a violation of the flow of urine in the kidneys or ureters; 
  •  narrowing or stricture of the urinary tract. Narrowing can be caused by trauma, infection, birth defects, an additional renal vessel, or surgery;
  •  vesicoureteral reflux: this is a condition in which urine flows in the opposite direction from the bladder to the kidneys;
  •  ureterocele: this is a condition in which the lower part of the ureter can protrude into the bladder. 

In women, hydronephrosis can occur as a result of pregnancy, uterine prolapse, cystocele (a condition that occurs when the wall between a woman's bladder and her vagina weakens and allows the bladder to descend into the vagina).

Clinical manifestations of hydronephrosis.
Hydronephrosis does not always cause clinical symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of hydronephrosis can be:

  • sudden or severe pain in the back or side;
  • vomiting;
  • painful urination;
  • blood impurity in the urine;
  • weakness;
  • fever (when an infection is attached). 

Diagnosis of hydronephrosis is based on a comprehensive examination, which includes:

  • examination and consultation of a doctor:
  • examination of the pelvic organs (with possible rectal examination and pelvic ultrasound);
  • urinalysis;
  • general clinical and biochemical blood analysis (with determination of urea, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate);

Multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may also be required.

How can we help you? 
The Loginov Moscow Research Center has all the necessary diagnostic capabilities and equipment to provide comprehensive specialized care to patients with hydronephrosis. In the urology department, surgical treatment is performed, directed treatment and correction of the causes of hydronephrosis using modern laparoscopic techniques, the DaVinci Si robotic system, as well as draining minimally invasive manipulations (ureteral stenting), operations (nephrostomy).

Do not delay your visit to the specialists of our center. This will help to diagnose the disease in a timely manner and choose the right treatment tactics. Doctors of the Department of Urology of the Moscow State Medical Center named after A. S. Loginov are always ready to help you. 

GBUZ Moscow Clinical Scientific Center named after Loginov MHD