Spleen cysts

Spleen cysts can be parasitic and non-parasitic. 

A parasitic cyst is the parasite itself, most often an echinococcus located in the spleen. Human infection occurs when the parasite's eggs are ingested from contaminated food, water, or soil, or after direct contact with animals that are the parasite's hosts (dogs, sheep, etc.). 

Non-parasitic cysts can be true, which are a malformation and a consequence of the trauma suffered-pseudocysts.

Who is at risk:

  • most people in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life; 
  • living in regions endemic to echinococcus;
  • those who have suffered injuries - a blow to the stomach, a fall from a height, an auto injury, etc.;
  • patients with systemic diseases and syndromes (Klippel-Trenone-Weber, Turner, and Bex-Wiedemann).

You can suspect the disease if the following symptoms occur:

  • abdominal pain;
  • fast saturation, heaviness after eating;
  • weight loss;
  • changes in the blood (anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy);
  • chills, fever;
  • enlargement of the spleen – "something is interfering on the left under the ribs, especially when tilted."

Spleen cysts often do not have any specific symptoms for a long time and are a find during a dispensary examination or examination for other diseases – most often with ultrasound.

For the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms of the spleen, use

  • Ultrasound,
  • computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast,
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • various laboratory data (serological tests (detection of the parasite), tumor markers (CA 19.9, REA), immune tests).

Treatment of non-parasitic spleen cysts is surgical. Resection of cystically altered tissues is performed in an effort to preserve a healthy part of the organ. In some cases, it is necessary to remove the entire spleen. In the Loginov Moscow Research Center, these operations are performed using a modern laparoscopic method. It is also used as a surgical robot.

In recent years, we have increasingly used puncture and drainage treatment. Under the control of ultrasound (less often CT), a puncture (puncture) of the cyst is performed, its contents are extracted, which are specially examined, and sclerosing substances, usually ethyl alcohol, are injected into the freed cyst cavity. Under the influence of a sclerosing agent, after 2-3 sessions, the cyst cavity is obliterated (closed).

Treatment of parasitic cysts of the spleen is also surgical. The spleen is resected over healthy tissues or removed completely. Laparoscopic and robotic technologies are also used. After surgery, all patients with echinococcosis are treated with antiparasitic therapy to prevent relapse.

Do not delay your visit to the specialists of our center. Early access to our specialists reduces the risk of spontaneous cyst rupture and the spread of parasites, cyst rupture as a result of trauma or malignant degeneration.

GBUZ Moscow Clinical Scientific Center named after Loginov MHD