Phylloid (leaf-shaped) fibroadenoma – a type of fibroadenoma, which is a formation that develops from the glandular tissue of the breast. Such fibroadenomas are quite rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. The importance of isolating this type of fibroadenoma is associated with an increased risk of its malignancy.
Phylloid fibroadenomas are most common in women in their 40s, but can be diagnosed in women of any age. The maximum age peak of the risk of development is the period before the onset of menopause (approximately 45 years).
The cause of phyllodic tumors is not reliably determined. It is known that they can only occur with age.
Risk factors for phylloid fibroadenoma:
- It is believed that a breast injury can provoke the appearance of a leaf-shaped fibroadenoma
- Fluctuations in the level of reproductive hormones (in particular, leading to an excess of estrogen in the body) increases the risk of phylloid fibroadenoma
- Women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (a rare hereditary genetic disease) have an increased risk of developing phyllodic tumors
Symptoms of phylloid fibroadenoma:
- Detectable to the touch dense painless formation in the mammary gland
- Rapid growth of the formation: within a few weeks or months, they reach a size of 3 cm or more
List of necessary examinations:
- consultation with an oncologist-mammologist, including discussion of disturbing symptoms, examination of the mammary glands;
- digital mammography (from 39-40 years old). With a radiologically dense background, a mammologist may recommend breast tomosynthesis
- ultrasound examination of the mammary glands (ultrasound)
The above-mentioned methods of examination do not require special training.
The need for a biopsy (fine needle or trepan biopsy) is determined by the mammologist and depends on the data obtained during the examination.
Due to the risk of malignancy of phylloid fibroadenoma, patients with this pathology are recommended for surgical treatment. The scope of surgical intervention, its outcome, as well as the duration of rehabilitation are determined individually in each specific case.
Since phylloid fibroadenomas can recur (usually these tumors return within 1-2 years after surgery), after surgical treatment, careful dynamic monitoring by a mammologist with the appointment of instrumental examinations of the mammary glands is recommended.