Bronchopulmonary cysts are cavities inside the lung tissue covered with the epithelium of the respiratory tract, having a wall structure similar to the walls of bronchi or acinuses.
They can be single and multiple (with polycystic), single-chamber and multi-chamber, located in one or both lungs
Pulmonary cysts are divided into true and false.
- True lung cysts are thin-walled rounded cavities covered from the inside with bronchial epithelium, may contain clear fluid or air, are congenital (cystic hypoplasia of the lungs, cystic adenomatous lung malformation, bronchoalveolar cysts. Bronchogenic cysts are located mainly next to the trachea, the main bronchi and are associated with them.
- False cysts are formed as a result of lung injuries, inflammatory processes (lung abscess, pneumonia, cavernous tuberculosis). False cysts have a fibrous capsule, more often located in the posterior segments of the lung.
- Parasitic lung cysts are often caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Infection occurs when eating contaminated vegetables, fruits, unboiled water, or in contact with animals infected with echinococcus, if personal hygiene rules are not followed.
You can suspect the disease if you have the following symptoms:
1. The presence of small cysts is most often asymptomatic, they are detected by X-ray examination of the chest organs
2. With large cysts (more than 5-6 cm in diameter), chest pains, dry cough or with scanty sputum, shortness of breath (due to compression of the lung and disruption of gas exchange in it) are possible
4. With the addition of infection, there are complaints of coughing with mucous or mucopurulent sputum, there may be shortness of breath and other signs of respiratory failure. During periods of exacerbations, the amount of sputum increases, its purulent nature is possible, an increase in body temperature, weakness
If such symptoms are found, it is recommended to consult a doctor. The specialist will assess the situation and appoint a follow-up examination.
To diagnose lung cysts,:
- Laboratory blood tests to identify markers of inflammation, immunological and bacteriological studies, analysis of arterial blood gases, general and bacteriological analysis of sputum
- Instrumental studies: multispiral computed tomography of the chest organs, examination of the function of external respiration, bronchoscopy with bronchial lavage and biopsy allow morphologically confirming the diagnosis.Treatment of lung cysts is only operative.
Drug therapy is used for infectious complications, aimed at the treatment of inflammatory processes, preparation for surgical treatment
In the Moscow Clinical Scientific and Practical Center named after A.S. Loginov, treatment of lung cysts is carried out collectively with the involvement of pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons. Timely treatment will help to diagnose the disease in time and choose the right treatment tactics. Doctors of GBUZ MCSC named after A.S. Loginov DZM are always ready to help you.