Pneumonia is a group of various acute infectious (mainly bacterial) diseases, accompanied by fever, cough with sputum, possibly purulent, dyspnea) and X–ray signs of "fresh" focal infiltrative changes.
The most common causative agent of pneumonia are:S. pneumoniae (30-50% of cases).
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae;
- Chlamydophila pneumoniae
- Legionella pneumophila.
Pneumonia can be caused by Haemophilus influenzae; Staphylococcus aureus; Klebsiella pneumoniae, less often by other enterobacteria. Mixed infection is possible.
In addition to bacterial pathogens, pneumonia can be caused by viruses (influenza viruses, coronaviruses, rhinosincytial virus (MS virus), human metapneumovirus, human bokavirus), and opportunistic mycosis caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii in HIV patients, premature newborns and patients with other severe immunodeficiency is isolated separately.
Pneumonia is characterized by the following symptoms:Acute fever (t> 38.0C).
- Cough with sputum, often purulent, chest pain, shortness of breath.
- Severe weakness, chills, night sweats, possibly impaired consciousness.
- With severe pneumonia, septic shock and acute respiratory failure may develop.
- For elderly and senile people, intoxication syndrome is more characteristic: drowsiness, lethargy, impaired consciousness, nausea, vomiting
- During auscultation, a weakening of breathing, local crepitation and / or small-bubbly wheezing, shortening of percussion sound, etc. are determined.)
Depending on the causative agent of pneumonia, various clinical symptoms are possible:Pneumococcal pneumonia is characterized by acute onset, high fever, chest pain.
- For pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila – diarrhea, neurological disorders, as well as severe course of the disease, impaired liver function.
- Mycoplasma pneumonia occurs with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection, muscle and headaches.
The following research methods are used in the diagnosis of pneumonia:Laboratory tests: general and biochemical blood tests, general and microbiological sputum tests, according to indications – coagulogram, immunological studies
Instrumental diagnosis of pneumonia includes radiography, computed tomography of the thoracic cavity organs), pulse oximetry, according to indications - ultrasound, fibrobronchoscopy with flushing, bronchoalveolar lavage, electrocardiographic examination (ECG).
Treatment of patients with pneumonia: a set of measures, including the appointment of antibiotics, respiratory support, bronchodilator and mucolytic therapy and prevention of complications. Timely detection and treatment of decompensation/exacerbation of concomitant diseases is extremely important.
In the Moscow Clinical Scientific and Practical Center named after A.S. Loginov, treatment and diagnosis of pneumoconiosis is carried out by joint efforts of pulmonologists, endoscopists, morphologists. Do not delay your visit to the specialists of our Center. Timely diagnosis of the disease will help to choose the right treatment tactics and prevent the risk of complications. Doctors of MCSC named after A.S. Loginov DZM are always ready to help you.