Gynecomastia is an increase in the mammary glands in men due to a violation of the balance of sex hormones (an increase in the level of estrogen relative to the level of testosterone).

In newborns and boys during puberty, as well as in older men, gynecomastia can develop due to natural (physiological) hormonal changes.

Other causes of gynecomastia:

- medications: antiandrogens (used to treat hyperplasia, prostate cancer and other pathological conditions), anabolic steroids and androgens, drugs against HIV infection (Efavirenz (Sustiva)), anxiety (Diazepam (Valium)), peptic ulcer (cimetidine). And also: antidepressants, antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, calcium channel blockers, digoxin, metoclopramide.

- alcohol, heroin, methadone, marijuana, amphetamines.

- conditions that affect the level of hormones in the body: hypogonadism, Kleinfelter syndrome, pituitary insufficiency, tumors of the testicle, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, hyperthyroidism, kidney failure, cirrhosis of the liver, malnutrition and hunger.

- herbal agents, weak estrogen activity, which is associated with gynecomastia: tea tree oil, lavender.


The treatment of gynecomastia is largely determined by the causes of its development. With gynecomastia in adolescence, periodic monitoring is sufficient, without resorting to medication or surgical treatment. Also, sometimes it is enough to give up alcohol, narcotic drugs, or discuss with your doctor the replacement of medications aimed at treating liver diseases, heart diseases, and pathologies of other organs with drugs that do not lead to gynecomastia.

In most cases, it is possible to achieve a regression of gynecomastia.

In the case of persistent or progressive gynecomastia, leading to clinical and aesthetic discomfort of the patient, surgical treatment - mastectomy is discussed.

If you notice an increase in one or both mammary glands in size, soreness, discharge from the nipples of the breast (on one or two sides), contact the specialists of the MCSC named after A. S. Loginov. After a preliminary examination, the experts of our Center will prescribe diagnostic tests: ultrasound of the mammary glands, mammography, MRI of the mammary glands, breast biopsy to diagnose gynecomastia and exclude other conditions that mimic it (pseudogynecomastia, breast cancer, mastitis, breast abscess).


GBUZ Moscow Clinical Scientific Center named after Loginov MHD