Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ that is located on the front surface of the neck and produces biological substances-hormones. 

Normally, the thyroid gland is not visible and is not palpable. The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly and is located in the front lower part of the neck. It consists of the right and left lobes connected by an isthmus.

The thyroid gland secretes two important hormones-thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, the function of the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract, mental and sexual activity. The level of thyroid hormones is regulated mainly by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released in the brain (in the pituitary gland)


  • Diseases of the thyroid gland.


Diseases of the thyroid gland today lead among all diseases of the endocrine organs.

The most common thyroid diseases include chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, nodular goiter, toxic goiter, and thyroid cancer.

An increase in the size of the thyroid gland is called a goiter. At the same time, the level of hormones can both increase and remain within the normal range. Goiter according to the classification of the World Health Organization can be of two degrees of increase: at the first degree - it is palpable, but not visible, and at the second degree of increase-it is both palpable and visible on examination.

The treatment of thyroid diseases is usually performed by endocrinologists and endocrinology surgeons.

All diseases of the thyroid gland, as a rule, occur with an increase or decrease in the production of thyroid hormones.

An increase in the level of thyroid hormones is called hyperthyroidism. The clinical manifestations of this increase are called thyrotoxicosis.

A decrease in the production of thyroid hormones is called hypothyroidism.

All nodular changes that are detected in the thyroid gland during its examination, palpation or when performing an ultrasound of the thyroid gland are a manifestation of the following diseases: nodular colloidal proliferating goiter, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, diffuse toxic goiter or tumors (adenoma or cancer) the thyroid gland.


  • When should I suspect thyroid disease?


1. Irritability, nervousness, anxiety.

2. Tremor in the hands (tremor)

3. Weight loss on the background of a good appetite

4. Sweating

5. High blood pressure

6. Change in heart rate (rapid heartbeat or slow pulse)

7. Enlarged and protruding eyes, feeling of sand in the eyes, watery eyes.

8. "Lump in the throat", difficulty swallowing

9. Change and hoarseness of the voice.

10. Enlargement of the lymph nodes of the neck.


  • How to avoid the development of thyroid diseases?


1. Periodically examine your neck for an increase in the lower part.

2. Occasionally feel the front surface of the neck for dense palpable formations

3. Regularly undergo medical examinations. At the doctor's examination, ask him to feel (palpate) your thyroid gland.

4. Eat iodized salt, which is sold in regular stores, in normal quantities.

5. Special attention is needed if your relatives have ever been diagnosed with serious thyroid diseases or cancer.


  • What research methods can detect thyroid diseases?


1. Palpation of the gland.

2. Ultrasound of the thyroid gland. With this method of research, it is possible to detect most diseases of the thyroid gland.

3. Donate blood for thyroid hormones-T4 and TSH.


  • What to do if you have any abnormalities in the study of the thyroid gland?


1. It is necessary to consult an endocrinologist.

2. The doctor will examine your medical data and will already be engaged in further examination. To clarify the diagnosis, it is often necessary to donate blood for antibodies to the gland tissue (AT-TG, AT-TPO, calcitonin).

3. When detecting nodules in the thyroid gland, it is often necessary to perform a fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the node (puncture) and further cytological examination of the cell composition.

4. In some cases, it is necessary to perform scintigraphy of the thyroid gland (study of the accumulation of special isotopes in the gland tissue - the isotope of iodine-127 or technetium-99.


  • When do I need to consult an endocrinologist?


1. The need for puncture of thyroid nodes.

2. Indications for surgery:

Some forms of nodular goiter with a cosmetic defect or compression of the neck organs

Diffuse toxic goiter or toxic adenoma

Thyroid cancer or nodes suspected of cancer

GBUZ Moscow Clinical Scientific Center named after Loginov MHD