Stroke (acute cerebrovascular accident) - this is an acute condition associated with a blockage or rupture of a blood vessel or venous sinus in the brain.
Acute cerebrovascular accident (ONMC) - a sudden failure of normal blood flow in the brain, resulting from a blockage or rupture of blood vessels. The disease is very dangerous for human health and life, so when its first signs appear, urgent medical care is needed. The diagnosis of ONMC is established in the case of disorders in the work of the brain vessels. When blood circulation is disrupted in a certain area of the brain, part of the nervous tissue dies. This can lead to serious disability or death. ONMC is not yet a stroke, but a condition that can lead to it. Timely adequate treatment can reduce the severity of the consequences of the attack.
Forms of stroke:
- ischemic stroke (brain infarction) - acute focal ischemia leading to a brain infarction;
- hemorrhagic stroke-rupture of an intracerebral vessel or arterial aneurysm.
Also, ONMC includes transient disorders of the cerebral circulation, which occur suddenly, last for several minutes or hours, but no more than a day, and end with a complete restoration of the impaired functions.
Such violations include:
- Transient ischemic attack;
- Hypertensive crisis.
Risk factors for the occurrence of ONMC.
- arterial hypertension,
- heart disease, atrial fibrillation,
- diabetes mellitus, disorders of lipid metabolism,
- damage to the main arteries of the head,
- hemostatic disorders.
Also, lifestyle-related risk factors:
- low physical activity,
- improper nutrition,
- alcohol abuse,
- prolonged psychoemotional stress.
The following diagnostic techniques are used for stroke screening:
- blood pressure monitoring, keeping a blood pressure/heart rate diary;
- blood lipid profile;
- determination of blood glucose level;
- duplex scanning of brachiocephalic arteries;
- ECG, if necessary: Holter ECG monitoring and / or ultrasound of the heart.
In acute disorders of the cerebral circulation, dizziness, static disturbances, unstable walking, as well as motor, sensory and speech disorders develop.
The optimal time for hospitalization of a patient with ONMC is the first 3 to 6 hours. When the doctor sees the patient in the first 1-2 hours from the beginning of a probable ischemic stroke and his initial assessment of the condition confirms the possibility of thrombolysis (administration of special drugs), requires the fastest possible delivery of it to the vascular center. Correction of respiratory disorders, water-electrolyte disorders, relief of convulsive syndrome, treatment of cerebral edema is carried out.
Rehabilitation after undergoing ONMC.
The measures are aimed at overcoming disability, adapting to self-care and working in the new conditions that have arisen as a result of illness. These include kinesiotherapy, sessions with a speech therapist, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, psychotherapy, etc.
The primary prevention of stroke is the restriction of lifestyle: smoking cessation, diet (increased consumption of vegetables and fruits), reduction of sodium (salt) intake, weight loss in overweight people, increased physical activity, refusal or reduction of alcohol consumption, etc.