Aspergillosis is a disease caused by mold fungi of the genus Aspergillus. They live everywhere – it is almost impossible to avoid meeting them. Infection occurs by airborne droplets. Together with the air, a person inhales small particles of dust containing spores of the fungus. Settling on the mucosa in the lungs, they germinate and cause inflammation.
Favorable conditions for the growth and reproduction of aspergillus are found in ventilation and shower systems, air conditioners and humidifiers, old pillows and books, long-stored food products, and even in the soil of indoor plants. At risk are employees of such specialties as cleaners, grain elevators, millers and people working with pigeons. Note the fact that aspergillosis is not transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one.
Infection with aspergillosis depends on the general state of the immune system. Risk factors include the presence of pathological processes in the human body:
- cavities in the lungs – post-tuberculosis and after bacterial infections;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- viral infections (HIV, ARVI, pneumonia);
- blood diseases;
- liver diseases;
- rheumatic diseases;
- long-term treatment with corticosteroid hormones;
- other diseases (Marfan syndrome).
The disease manifests itself in the following symptoms:
- Cough dry, or with purulent sputum.
- Fever (increased body temperature above 38C).
- Chest pain.
If aspergillosis is suspected, the patient is referred for consultation to specialists of the appropriate profile. The work activity and lifestyle of the patient, the presence of chronic lung diseases or immunodeficiency are taken into account.
The following tests can be performed to diagnose aspergillosis:
- Laboratory tests of the patient's skin and blood.
- Sputum microscopy: Sputum samples are stained to check for the presence of Aspergillus fungus.
- Bronchoalveolar lavage: the introduction of an antiseptic solution and the washing out of sputum accumulations from the bronchi. The resulting washes are used for diagnostic studies.
- Visual examinations: X-ray or computed tomography (CT) of the chest organs.
- Biopsy: examination of a small sample of tissue from the lungs or sinuses.
You can undergo a full diagnostic examination by specialists of the Loginov MCSC to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of aspergillosis.